Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi (Narration) Rules, Examples, Exercises

Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi (Narration) Rules, Examples and Exercises. Learn Direct and Indirect Narration in Hindi. प्रत्यक्ष और अप्रत्यक्ष कथन हिंदी में सीखिए। Rules of Indirect Speech in Hindi and English with examples. Direct and Indirect Speech को Hindi में प्रत्यक्ष और अप्रत्यक्ष कथन कहते हैं। जब आप किसी व्यक्ति द्वारा कही गई बात को दो तरह से कहा जाता है; Direct और Indirect के नीचे दिए गए उदाहरणों को देखें:

Direct: He said to me, “I am a rich man.”
प्रत्यक्ष: उसने मुझसे कहा, “मैं एक अमीर आदमी हूं।”

Indirect: He told me that he was not a rich man.
अप्रत्यक्ष: उसने मुझे बताया कि वह एक अमीर आदमी नहीं था।

Note: ऊपर भी गए वाक्यों में Direct Speech के वाक्य में किसी व्यक्ति द्वारा कही ही बात को ज्यों का त्यों inverted commas में quote कर लिखा गया है जबकि Indirect Speech के वाक्य को ज्यों का त्यों न लिखकर वक्ता (speaker) द्वारा अपने शब्दों में लिखा गया है।

इस पोस्ट के माध्यम से आप Direct and Indirect Speech के Rules, Examples Hindi में पढ़ेंगे। सभी नियम विस्तार से समझाए गए।

Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi (Narration) Rules, Examples, Exercises
Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi

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Direct and Indirect Speech in Hindi (Narration)

Direct का प्रत्यक्ष अर्थात सीधा तथा Indirect का अर्थ अप्रत्यक्ष होता है। Speech या Narration का अर्थ ‘वर्णन’ होता है। इस तरह से किसी व्यक्ति द्वारा कही हुई बात को दो प्रकार से व्यक्त किया जा सकता है।

Direct Speech in Hindi

किसी वक्ता के शब्दों को ज्यों का त्यों बिना किसी प्रकार का परिवर्तन किये कहा जाता है, उसे Direct Speech या Direct Narration कहते हैं। Direct Speech के शब्दों को inverted commas (“………”) के अंदर लिखते हैं।

जैसे –

  • Dileep said, ” I can speak English fluently.”
    दिलीप ने कहा, ” मैं धाराप्रवाह अंग्रेजी बोल सकता हूं। “

Note: इस वाक्य में Dileep वक्ता (speaker) है। उसके द्वारा कहा जा रहा है कि वह धाराप्रवाह अंग्रेजी बोल सकता है।

Parts of Direct Speech or Narration

Direct Speech के दो भाग होते हैं; Reporting Speech तथा Reported Speech

Reporting Speech: Commas से बाहर वाले वाक्य को Reporting Speech कहते हैं। नीचे दिए गए वाक्य में ‘He said to me’ Reporting Speech है।

  • जैसे – He said to me, “I am fine.”

Reporting Speech के Part

ऊपर दिए गए वाक्य के part नीचे दिए गए हैं;

Reporter Reporting Verb Object of reporting verb
He said to me

Reported Speech: Commas के अंदर आए हुए वाक्य को Reported Speech कहते हैं। नीचे दिए गए वाक्य “I was busy yesterday.” Reported Speech है। यह वह हिस्सा होता है जिसे ज्यों का त्यों लिखते हैं।

जैसे – I said, “I was busy yesterday.”

Indirect Speech in Hindi

जब वक्ता द्वारा कही हुई बात को ज्यों का त्यों न लिखकर अपने शब्दों में उसका भावार्थ लिखते या बोलते हैं, उसे Indirect Speech या Indirect Narration कहते हैं।

Examples:

Dileep said that he could speak English fluently.
दिलीप ने कहा कि वह धाराप्रवाह अंग्रेजी बोल सकता है।

Note: इस वाक्य में inverted commas का प्रयोग नहीं हुआ है। Speaker (वक्ता) की कही बात को अपने शब्दों में लिखा गया है।

Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

Assertive Sentences को Direct से Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम के अनुसार सबसे पहले commas बाहर परिवर्तन करते हैं। उसके बाद commas के अंदर परिवर्तन किया जाता है। इन सभी परिवर्तनों को कैसे और कब करना है, यह सभी नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं।

Reporting Speech में Change

वाक्य के बाहर का part (Commas के बाहर) Reporting Speech कहलाता है। Commas के बाहर परिवर्तन करने के rules निम्नलिखित हैं।

Commas के बाहर Changes

यदि Reporting Verb में said to आये तो उसे told, says to को tells में, say to को tell में बदलते हैं। यदि वाक्य में said, says, तथा say के बाद to न आया हो तो इन्हें indirect speech में ज्यों का त्यों लिखते हैं।

say to tell
says to tells
said to told

Commas में Change

Assertive Sentence को Direct से Indirect Speech में बदलते समय commas को हटाकर that लिखते हैं।

जैसे

  • He said, “I am not sure.”
    He said that he was not sure.

Change of Pronouns (सर्वनाम के परिवर्तन)

Direct से Indirect Speech में बनाते समय Pronoun के परिवर्तन में निम्नलिखित नियमों का पालन किया जाता है।

Rule – 1 यदि Reporting Speech में I Person के Pronoun आता है तो Reporting Speech के Subject के Person के अनुसार बदला जाता है।

जैसे

  1. She said, ”I am writing a letter.”
    She said that she was writing a letter.
  2. Teena says to me, ”You can invite me.”
    Teena tells me that I could invite her.

Rule – 2 यदि Reported Speech के वाक्य में कोई Second Person Pronoun आया है तो Reporting Speech के Object (कर्म) के अनुसार बदलते हैं।

जैसे

  1. He said to me, “You do it well.”
    He told me that I did it well.

Rule – 3 Reported Speech में आये सभी Third Person Pronoun को बदला नहीं जाता है।

Examples:

  • My friend said, “He is a good postman.”
    My friend said that he was a good postman.

Rule – 4 यदि Reporting Speech का object न दिया हो तथा Reported Speech का Subject II Person हो और Reporting Verb का Subject Second First Person का हो तो Reported Speech के ‌second person को Indirect Speech में III person के Subject में बदल देते हैं।

Examples:

  • I said, “You have a nice dress.”
    I told him that he had a nice dress.
    I told her that she had a nice dress.

Read also:

Change of Tense

Rule – 1 यदि Reporting Speech के verb का Tense ‘Present या Future Tense’ में है तो Reported Speech के Verb का Tense नहीं बदला जाता है।

जैसे

1. He says, “I am doing it now.”
He says that he is doing it then.

2. Seeta says, ‘I sang a song.”
Seeta says that she sang a song.

3. The man will say to me, ”I cannot find my purse.”
The man will tell me that he could not find his purse.

4. Ram says to Rohan, “I am ready.”
Ram tells Rohan that he is ready.

5. He has said, “The girl was poor”
He has said that the girl was poor.

Rule – 3 यदि Reporting Speech के Verb का Tense ‘Past Tense’ है तो Reported Speech का Tense नीचे दी गई टेबल के अनुसार बदलते हैं।

Direct Speech या Narration का Tense

Tense of Direct Speech/Narration  Tense of Indirect Speech/Narration
Present Indefinite Tense Past Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous Tense Past Continuous Tense
Present Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Indefinite Tense Past Perfect Tense
Past Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Examples:

Rule – 4 यदि Reporting Speech Past Tense में तथा Reported Speech Future Tense में है तो नीचे दिए table के अनुसार चेंज करते हैं।

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Shall Should
Will Would
Shall be Should be
Will be Would be
Shall have Should have
Will have Would have
Shall have been Should have been
Will have been Would have been

Examples:

1. Raj said to me, ” I shall play with you.”
Raj told me that he would play with me.

2. Kamal said to Vimal, “You will be driving your car.”
Kamal told Vimal that he would be driving his car.

3. They said to him, ‘You will have completed your registration.”
They told him that he would have completed his registration.”

4. I said to you, “I shall have been buying milk for five days.”
I told you that I should have been buying milk for five days.”

Read also

Other Verb changes

Rule – 1 यदि Reporting Speech Past Tense में है तथा Reported Speech में नीचे दी गई Auxiliary Verbs का प्रयोग हो तो नीचे दी गई सूची के अनुसार Indirect Speech में बदलते हैं।

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
Can Could
May Might
Is Was
Am Was
Are Were
Do Did
Does Did
Have Had
Has Had
Was Had been
Were Had been
Has to, have to Had to

Examples:

1. He said to me, ”I can solve this problem.”
He told that he could solve that problem.

2. Sita said to her friend, ”You may sleep here.”
Sita told her friend that she might sleep there.

3. Mohandas said to her sister, ”She is better than you.”
Mohandas told her sister that she was better than her.

4. The teacher said to us, “I am your new teacher of English.”
The teacher told us that he was their new teacher.

5. They said to me, “We are  playing cricket here.”
They told me that they were playing cricket cricket.

6. Gagan said to her sister, “I do my work on time.”
Gagan told her sister that he did her work on time.

7. She said, ”I have a nice dress.”
She said that she had a nice dress.

8. Teena said to her friend, “I have to carry the lunch box with me.”
Teena told her friend that he had to carry the lunch box with her.

Rule – 2 यदि Reporting Verb Past Tense में है तथा Reported Speech में Subject + Could/Should/Would/Might + Verb I का प्रयोग हो तो could, should, would, might को बिना बदले ज्यों का त्यों लिखते हैं।

Examples:

1. Father said, ”I could buy 5 kg mangoes.”
Father said that he could buy 5 kg mangoes.

2. He said to him, “He should do it honestly.”
He told him that he should do it honestly.

Important Rules for changing the tense

Rule – 1 यदि Reported Speech में कोई सदा सच रहने वाली बात (Universal Truth), आदत (Habit), ऐतिहासिक तथ्य या घटना (Historical Truth or Event), कहावत (Proverb) आदि दी हो तो Indirect Speech में बनाते समय Reported Speech के टेंस में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं।

Universal Truth

  1. The grandfather said, ” The earth moves round the sun.”
    The grandfather said that the earth moves round the sun.

Habit

  1. He said, ”I go to school everyday.”
    He said that He goes to school everyday.

Historical Truth

  1. Rajesh said, “India got freedom in 1947.”
    Rajesh said that India got freedom in 1947.”

Proverb

  1. My said to me, ” Honesty is the best policy.”
    My told me that honesty is the best policy.

Rule – 2 यदि Reported Speech का Simple Past Tense में एक साथ दो कार्यों का होने का बोध हो तथा time clause का प्रयोग हो रहा हो तब Indirect बनाते समय Simple Past Tense तथा Past Continuous Tense मैं परिवर्तन नहीं करते हैं।

Examples:

1. He said, “When I came to your house, you were teaching your child.”
He said that when he came to his house, I was teaching my child.

2. She said, ‘When the movie started, current went.”
She said that when the movie started the current went.

Change in words showing nearness

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
This That
These Those
Here There
Now Then
Thus So
Hence Thence
Today That night
Tonight That night
Tomorrow The next day
The following day
Yesterday The previous day
The day before
The day before yesterday Two days before
The day after tomorrow In two days’ time
Last week/day/month/year The previous week/day/month/year
Next day/month/year/ The following week/day/month/year
Come Go
Ago Before
This night/day That night/day

Examples of Assertive Sentences of Indirect Speech

Assertive Sentences को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम ऊपर बताये जा चुके हैं। यहां उनके Examples दिए जा रहे हैं। Assertive Sentences के अंतर्गत affirmative sentences तथा negative sentences आते हैं।

Examples:

1. He says to me, ”I am ill.”
He tells me that he is ill.

2. I say to you, ”The man is out.
I tell you that the man was out.

3. Shyam said to me, ”I am you best friend.”
Shyam told me that he was my best friend.

4. You said to me, ”He plays cricket with friends.”
You told me that he played cricket with friends.

5. Gagan said to me, ”I am waiting for you.”
Gagan told me that he is waiting for you.

Interrogative Sentences

Direct Speech के Interrogative Sentences को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं।

Yes-No Type Questions को direct speech से Indirect speech में बदलना

यदि Reported Speech में Interrogative Sentences Helping Verb से शुरू है तो वाक्य को Direct से Indirect Speech में बदलने के लिए नीचे दिए गए rules को फॉलो करते हैं।

Rule – 1

(1) Commas के बाहर Reporting Verb में आये भाव के अनुसार

  • say या say to को ask/demand/enquire/want to know में बदलते हैं।
  • says या says to को asks/demands/enquires/wants to know में बदलते हैं।
  • said या said to asked/demanded/enquired/wanted to know में बदलते हैं।

(2) Inverted commas को हटाकर if या whether करते हैं।
(3) इसके बाद interrogative sentence को affirmative में बदलकर लिखते हैं।
(4) अंत में full stop लगाते हैं।
(5) अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्यों की तरह होते हैैं।

Examples:

1. She said to her mother, ”Are you ill?”
She asked her if she was ill.

2. He said to me, ”Is your brother here?”
He asked me if my brother was ill.

3. Seeta said, ”Am I Right?”
Seeta asked if she was right.

4. We said to him, “Are you sleeping now”
We asked him if he was sleeping then.

5. You said, “Do you know your rights?”
You asked him/her if he/she knew her/his rights.

6. The man said to me, “Have you taken your medicine?”
The man asked me if I had taken my medicine.

7. Golu said to his brother, ”Have you been playing here for two hours?
Golu asked his brother if he had been playing there for two hours.

8. Ravi said to me, ”Did you write a letter to your client?
Ravi asked me if I had written a letter to my client.

9. Alok asked, ”Were you beating your child yesterday?
Alok asked me/him if I/he had been beating my/his child the previous day.

10. Roshani said to him, “Is New Delhi is the capital of India?”
Roshani asked him if New Delhi is the Capital of India.

Wh-word Questions को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech (Narration) में बदलना

Wh-word Questions को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech/Narration से बदलने के नियम नीचे दिए गए हैं।

Rule – 1 यदि रिपोर्टेड स्पीच का Interrogative Sentence Wh-words से शुरू है तो Sentence को indirect speech बदलने के लिए नीचे दिए गए हो स्टेप्स को फॉलो करते हैं।

1. सबसे पहले Reporting Verb को अर्थ के अनुसार ask/asks/asked, demands/demands/demanded, enquire/enquires/enquired मैं बदलते हैं।

2. उसके बाद Inverted commas को हटाकर if/whether/that आदि का प्रयोग नहीं करते हैं। इसकी जगह उसी प्रश्नवाचक शब्द (interrogative word) का प्रयोग करते हैं जो सेंटेंस में आता है।

3. Direct Speech में हुए वाक्य (Wh-word + helping verb + sub + verb + object + other +?) को Indirect Speech में Assertive Sentence (question word + subject + verb + object के आधार पर) में बदल कर लिखते हैं।

4. Pronouns तथा Tense में change सिंपल सेंटेंसेस की तरह होते हैं।

5. अंत में full stop (.) रखते हैं।

Examples:

1. The policeman said to the thief, “Why have you stolen this ring?”
The policeman asked the thief why he had stolen that ring.

2. Roshni said to Rani, “Why did you not come yesterday?
Roshni asked Rani why she had not come the previous day.

3. The patient said, “Where is the doctor?”
The patient wanted to know where the doctor was.

4. My friend said to me, “Where do you live?”
My friend asked me where I lived.

5.  He said, “When does the milk man come yesterday?”
He asked when the milk man had come the previous day.

6. Father asked me, “What do you want?”
Father asked me what I wanted.

7. The magician said to the boy, “What did you see in the box?”
The magician asked the boy what he had seen in the box.

8. I said to the students, “How can you solve this question?”
I asked the students how you could solve that question.

9. The captain said to the players,” Why did you come late?”
The caption asked the players why they had come late.

10. Mother said to her daughter, “Which movie did you see last night?”
Mother asked her daughter which film she had watched the previous night.

Imperative Sentences

Verb I, Do not, Never Always Please Kindly शुरू होने वाले वाक्य आगे सूचक होते हैं। इनसे आज्ञा, आदेश, इच्छा, मना करना, निर्देश आदि का भाव प्रकट होता है।

जैसे

1. Open the box now.
2. Clean the house.
3. Do not hesitate to call me.
4. Please refresh the page.
5. Kindly send me your address.
6. Always Remember this thing.

Imperative Sentences को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में बदलना

Imperative Sentences को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

यदि Direct Speech में कोई Imperative Sentence आता है तो नीचे दिए rules के अनुसार Indirect Speech में उसे बदला जाता है।

Rule – 1 यदि Indirect Speech में आया हुआ Imperative Sentence ‘Verb I’ से शुरु है तो नीचे दिए rules को फॉलो करते हैं;

(1) यदि Reporting Speech में say, said, says या say to, said to, says to आयें तो नीचे दी गई टेबल के अनुसार बदलते हैं।

Speaker Listener Change
Younger elder requested
Elder younger told/asked
Teacher Student ordered
Student Teacher requested
Caption player commanded
Player caption requested
Caption soldier ordered
Father son ordered/told
Friend friend told/asked

Note: ऊपर दी गई टेबल के अनुसार Reporting verb मैं परिवर्तन करते हैं तथा इसके अलावा नीचे दिए गए शब्दों को भी reporting verb के स्थान पर प्रयोग किया जाता है।

Words: warn, implore, threaten, persuaded, entreat, urge, beg

(2) Commas को हटा देते हैं तथा उनके स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करते हैं।

(3) यदि वाक्य में sir, madam, please, kindly आया है तो उन्हें हटा दिए जाता है। ऐसे Sentences में Reporting Verb को request, requests या requested में बदलते हैं।

(4) अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्यों की तरह किये जाते हैं।

Examples:

1. Ram said to Shyam, “Have a seat.”
Ram told/requested Shyam to have a seat.

2. Father said to me, “Get out of my room.”
Father ordered me to get out of his room.

3. The teacher says, “Open your books.”
The teacher orders to open the books.

4. Shyam said to me, “Please help me.”
Shyam requested me to help him.

5. The doctor said, ”Sleep for seven hours.”
The doctor advised me to sleep for seven hours.

Note:

1. यदि Direct Speech के Reported Speech में Sir या Madam आता है तो उनको हटाकर उनके स्थान पर respectfully का प्रयोग करते हैं।

2. यदि Reporting Verb के बाद कोई object नहीं आया है तो sir/madam के स्थान पर respectfully का प्रयोग object के बाद करते हैं।

Examples:

1. She said to the shopkeeper, “Sir, please help me.”
She requested the shopkeeper respectfully to help her.

2. The student said to the teacher, “Sir, grant me leave for two days”
The the student requested the teacher respectfully to grant him leave for two days.

3. The driver said, “Madam, please close the door.”
The driver requested respectfully to close the door.

4. He said to the policeman, “Sir please catch the thief.”
He requested the policeman respectfully to catch the thief.

Negative Imperative Sentences को Direct से Indirect Speech में बदलना

जो वाक्य सामान्य Do not/Don’t से शुरू होते हैं वे Negative Imperative Sentences कहलाते हैं।

जैसे

1. Don’t worry. (चिंता मत करो।)
2. Don’t forget it. (इसे मत भूलना।)
3. Do not hesitate. (मत हिचकिचाओ।)
4. Please do not go. ( कृपया मत जाइए।)
5. Kindly don’t talk here. (कृपया यहां बातें मत करो)

Rule – 1 Reporting Verb – say, says, said को अर्थ के अनुसार ask, asks, asked/tell, tells, told/order, orders, oerderd में बदलते हैं।

Rule – 2 Commas को हटाकर Do not के स्थान पर not to लगाते हैं।

Rule – 3 बचा हुआ वाक्य not to के बाद जोड़ देते हैं।

Rule – 4 अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्यों की तरह होते हैं।

Examples:

1. He said to me, “Don’t complain.”
He asked/told me not to complain.

2. My friend said to me, “Do not open the window.”
My friend asked/told me not to open the window.

3. The teacher says, ”Don’t read it.”
The teacher told me not to read it.

4. I said to her, “Don’t walk there.”
I asked/told her not to walk there.

Forbid/Forbids/Forbade का प्रयोग

Do not वाले नकारात्मक आज्ञा सूचक वाक्यों को forbade का प्रयोग करके भी indirect speech मैं बदलते हैं।

Rule – 1 say/says/said को forbid/forbids/forbade में बदलते हैं।

Rule – 2 Do not को हटा देते हैं तथा उसके स्थान पर to का प्रयोग करते हैं।

Rule – 3 अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्यों की तरह होते हैं।

Examples:

1. Father said to me, “Don’t eat this mango.”
Father forbade me to eat that mango.

2. She said to me, “Do not play in the sun.”
She forbade me to play in the sun.

3. I said to my son, “Don’t run on the road.”
I forbade my son to run on the road.

निषेध सूचक वाक्य

यदि Direct Speech में कोई निषेध सूचक वाक्य आया है तो उसे निम्न प्रकार से बदलते हैं।

Examples:

1. She said to him, “Stop writing.”
She prevented/prohibited him from writing.

2. Gagan said to us, “Don’t play with strangers.”
Gagan prohibited us from playing with strangers.
Gagan forbade us to play with strangers.

3. My teacher said to me, “Never abuse anyone.”
My teacher prevented/prohibited me from abusing anyone.

Do + Verb I + Object + Other Words पर आधारित वाक्य

यदि कोई आगे सूचक वाक्य do से शुरू है तो उसको इनडायरेक्ट स्पीच में बदलते समय नीचे दिए गए स्टेप्स को फॉलो करते हैं;

Rules:

1. said या said to अर्थ के अनुसार requested/ordered में बदलते हैं।
2. Inverted Commas को हटा देते हैं और to लगाते हैं।
3. बचे हुए अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्य करते हैं।

Examples:

1. He said to me, “Do learn your lesson.”
He asked me to learn my lesson.

2. Gagan said to her, “Do open the letter.”
Gagan asked her to open the letter.

Let से शुरू होने वाले वाक्य को indirect speech change करना

Imperative Sentences जो let से शुरू होते हैं, यदि उनसे प्रस्ताव या सुझाव का बोध हो तो इनडायरेक्ट स्पीच में बदलने के नियम निम्नलिखित हैं।

Rules

1. Reporting Verb को proposed या suggested में बदलते हैं; यदि suggest या propose की बात कोई ऑब्जेक्ट आया है तो उससे पहले to का प्रयोग अवश्य करते हैं।

2. Inverted commas को हटाकर that लिख देते हैं।
3. लेट को हटा देते हैं।
4. यदि सेंटेंस में objective case के प्रोनाउंस us का प्रयोग हुआ है तो अर्थ के अनुसार nominative case के प्रोनाउन भी we या they में बदलते हैं।
5. इसके बाद should तथा मुख्य क्रिया की First Form का प्रयोग करते हैं।
6. अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्य की तरह करते हैं।

Examples:

1. He said to his father, ” Let us go to park.”
He suggested/proposed to his father that we/they should go to park.

2. He said, “Let us help the poor.”
He suggested that they should help the poor.

3. I said to him, “Let us go to market.”
I suggested/proposed to him that they/we should go to market.

4. Grandfather said to his grandson, “Let us go a for a walk.”
Grandfather suggested to his grandson that they should go for a walk.

5. Sohan said to her, “Let us go out.”
Sohan proposed her that we/they should go out.

Let से Wish या Desire का बोध होने वाले वाक्यों को indirect speech में बदलना

यदि let से शुरू होने वाले direct speech वाक्यों से किसी इच्छा का भाव प्रकट हो तो उसे इनडायरेक्ट स्पीच में निम्न प्रकार से बदलते हैं;

Rules:

1. Reporting Verb say/says/said को wish/wishes/wished में भाव के अनुसार बदलते हैं।
2. Inverted Commas को हटाकर that में बदलते हैं।
3. Let को हटा देते हैं।
4. Let के बाद आए हुए ऑब्जेक्टिव केस के प्रोनाउंस को नॉमिनेटिव केस के pronouns में बदलते हैं। ये बदलाव persons को बदलने के नियम के अनुसार होता है।
5. Nominative case के pronouns तथा मुख्य क्रिया की First Form का प्रयोग करते हैं।
6. अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्य की तरह होते हैं।

Examples:

1. He said, “Let me know this matter.”
He wished that he should know that matter.

2. Gagan said, “Let him take a rest.”
Gagan wished that he should take a rest.

3. She said, Let me help the needy.”
She wished that she should help the needy.

4. You said, “Let me watch this movie.”
You wished that you should watch that movie.

Note: यदि लेट से शुरू होने वाले वाक्य में अनुमति का बोध हो तो Reporting Verb को ordered/requested में बदलकर लिखते हैं। Commas तथा let को हटा देते हैं। उसके to allow बाद लिखते हैं। आप to allow के स्थान पर to let का प्रयोग कर सकते हैं।

Examples:

1. The master said to his servant, “Let him go home.”
The master ordered his servant to allow him to go home.
The master ordered his servant to let him go home.

2. The son said to father, “Let me sleep now.
The son requested father to let him sleep.

Optative Sentences को Indirect Speech में बदलने के नियम

Optative Sentences (इच्छा सूचक वाक्य) वे वाक्य होते हैं जिनसे प्रार्थना, इच्छा, अभिशाप तथा आशीर्वाद का बोध होता है। ऐसे वाक्यों को डायरेक्ट स्पीच से इनडायरेक्ट स्पीच में बदलने के नियम निम्नलिखित हैं;

Rules:

1. Reporting Verb को भाव तथा tense के अनुसार wish/wishes/wished, pray/prays/prayed, cruse/curses/cursed, bless/blesses/blessed में बदलते हैं।

2. Inverted Commas को हटाकर that लिखते हैं।

3. Direct Speech में आए हुए optative sentence को assertive sentence (Subject + might + verb I + object + other words) में बदलकर लिखते हैं।

4. अन्य परिवर्तन साधारण वाक्य की तरह होते हैं।

Examples:

1. She said to me, “May may you live long!”
She blessed me that I might live long.

2. They said, “May God bless you!”
They prayed that God might bless him.

3. Mohan said to me, “May you succeed in your life!”
Mohan wished me that I might succeed in my life.

4. Father said to his son, “May you pass in the examination!”
Father wished his son that he might pass in the examination.

5. People said, “Long live our prime minister!”
People prayed that their prime minister might live long.

6. My mother said to me, “You be happy!”
My mother wished me that I might be happy.

Note: यदि यदि डायरेक्ट स्पीच के optative sentence में may ना आया हो तो वहां may अपने आप ही मान लेते हैं।

Exclamatory Sentences को Direct Speech से Indirect Speech में बदलना

Exclamatory Sentences से joy sorrow surprise, anger, contempt, applause, regret, happiness आदि का बोध होता है। यह वाक्य अक्सर hello!, Alas!, Hurrah!, Ah!, Oh!, Well done!, Bravo! Ha! Ha!, Oh dear! आदि से प्रारंभ होते हैं।

Exclamatory Sentences डायरेक्ट स्पीच इनडायरेक्ट स्पीच में बदलने के नियम निम्नलिखित हैं;

Rules:

1. Reporting Verb को नीचे दी गई टेबल के अनुसार बदलते हैं।

Expression (भाव) Change words
खुशी/प्रसन्नता exclaimed with joy
दुख/सुख exclaimed with sorrow
आश्चर्य exclaimed with surprise
क्रोध exclaimed with anger
तिरस्कार exclaimed with contempt
प्रशंसा exclaimed with applause
पश्चाताप exclaimed with regret

2. Inverted Commas को को हटा देते हैं तथा उनके स्थान पर that लिख देते हैं।

3. उसके बाद वाक्य में आए हुए सभी interjection (विस्मयसूचक शब्दों) को हटा देते हैं।

4. इसके बाद Exclamatory Sentence को Assertive Sentences में बदलकर लिखते हैं।

5. अंत में exclamation mark को हटाकर full stop लगाते हैं।

Examples:

1. The boy said, ”Alas! I am ruined.”
The boy exclaimed with sorrow that he was ruined.

2. He said, “How beautiful the rainbow is!”
He exclaimed with joy that the rainbow was very beautiful.
He exclaimed that the rainbow was very beautiful.

3. Father said, “Alas! My daughter hasn’t come.”
Father exclaimed with sorrow that his daughter hadn’t come.

4. The foreigner said, “What a place it is!”
The foreigner exclaimed with joy/surprise that it was a very beautiful place.

5. The students said to the teacher, “Happy Diwali, sir!”
The students wished the teacher respectfully a happy Diwali.

6. The captain said, “Ah! we have lost the game.”
The captain exclaimed with sorrow that they had lost the game.

7. The boy said to the girl, “How beautiful you are!”

The boy exclaimed with joy/surprise that she was very beautiful.

8. The sports teacher said, “Bravo! you have done well!”
The sports teacher exclaimed with joy that he had done well.

9. He said, “Nice!”
He gave an exclamation of pleasure.

10. He said, “Good bye!”
He bade me good bye.

11. She said to her friends, “Good Night!”
She bade her friends good night.

12. Raju said, “How happy I am!”
Raju exclaimed with joy that he was very happy.

13. Father said, “Well done! You have done well!”
Father exclaimed with praise that I had done well.

Direct and Indirect Speech Exercises

Here are some Direct and Indirect Speech Exercises for practice. Solve them and match your answer below. These exercises are very helpful for the students. After learning the above rules of Indirect Speech.

Direct and Indirect Speech Exercise – 1 – Assertive Sentences

  1. He says, “I am very happy today.”
  2. The girls say, “We are free.”
  3. Father said, “I am not able to run.”
  4. I said to my client. “You have not told me anything.
  5. The teacher said to the students, “There are twelve months in a year.”
  6. The judge said to the criminal, “You can’t speak loudly here.”
  7. I said, “I will pay my bill.”
  8. The teacher said to the student, “you never come late.”
  9. He said, “I am doing my work.”
  10. My mother said, “Honesty is the best policy.”
  11. He said the earth pulls everything towards it.”
  12. Sham set to me, “I will attend the class tomorrow.”
  13. The principal said to the students, ”The school will be closed tomorrow.”
  14. The old woman says, “I have become very old.”
  15. The teacher says to me, “You have written the essay correctly.”
  16. The man said, “My does not eat anything.”
  17. The student said to the teacher, “I didn’t understand the last example.”
  18. Raju said to Rohan, “I don’t know the name of the minister of education.”
  19. Sita said to her father, “I haven’t read the chapter two of this book.”
  20. Grandfather said, “You can jump.”

Interrogative Sentences – Direct and Indirect Speech Exercise – 2

Exercise – 2

    1. She said to me, “Are you fine?”
    2. Pawan said to her, “Do you know me?”
    3. Rahul sad to his mother, ” Have you cooked something to eat?”
    4. The girl says to the man, “Did you see my brother yesterday?”
    5. The patient said, “Where is the doctor?”
    6. The teacher said to the student Have you done your homework?”
    7. The police man said to the thief, “Who stole the money?”
    8. Father said to mother, “Where is Sohan going?”
    9. She said, “When does your washerman come everyday?”
    10. “Who has broken this chair?” said grandfather.
    11. He said to me, “Will you open the door?”
    12. The customer say to the shopkeeper, “Do you sale this a special kind of coffee?”
    13. The doctor said to the patient, “When should I take this medicine?”
    14. They said to the passenger, “Where did you come from?”
    15. Vinod said to Aruna do you know Rakhi’s address?
    16. Mr Sharma asked Mr Verma, “Where have you been playing since morning?”

Watch the Direct and Indirect Speech Video in Hindi for better understanding.

 

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